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The latest dirt on scrapes
 

No matter how long you have deer hunted, we dare you to walk past a scrape without checking it out. How fresh is it? How big is it? Was it there last year? Did he tear up the overhanging branches? Is there a track in the scrape? Where is the entrance and exit routes? Every scrape is a story, a mystery, something that tweaks at the hunter within.

We are no different than the average hunter, because we also are intrigued by scrapes. We, like many of you, believed for years that a dominant buck would make a scrape and estrous does would visit it. If a lesser buck came near, he steered clear of the scrape. Then the big buck would come back periodically, wind check the scrape, and if a hot doe had been there, he’d pick up her scent and catch up to her. Then the chase was on. It all made sense (sorry, a little play on words ...scents), but new studies on scrapes done in recent years gives us a different perspective on what happens there.

Scrapes have long been defined as a pawed area in the soil 3-4 feet beneath an overhanging branch. The first major scrape study was published in 1987 by Dr. Karl Miller and was based on work done on a penned deer herd at the University of Georgia. In those pens scraping was related to buck age (only mature dominant bucks did most of the scraping), testosterone level, and hierarchical position in the herd. They also found that sub-ordinate bucks can mark and lick the overhanging limb, but they rarely interact with the scrape itself (i.e. paw, urinate). Remember though, this was a pen study and we will learn that there can be biases associated with such studies. For example, being in a pen, the deer can’t really move as much as they might in the wild. Also, the deer were only observed during the day. Still, this research was valuable and well done.

In the years after the Miller study we still did not know a whole lot about scrapes, who used them, when, etc., until the advent of remote-sensing cameras. Cameras opened up a whole new world, not only for hunters, but for researchers interested in the meaning of scrapes. And video cameras with night lighting opened up things even more. Do only the dominant bucks visit scrapes? When do they visit? What behaviors occur when bucks (and does) come to scrapes? These are just some of the questions that we will examine as we consider the latest dirt on scrapes.

Why do bucks make scrapes?
Scrapes are like rubs, signposts that have to do with olfactory and/or visual communication and to a lesser degree, with dominance in bucks. The Miller study mentioned above, and other research, showed that scrapes are places where does let bucks know whether they are ready to breed. Scrapes also probably tell members of the opposite sex that they were there. Bottom line, we’ve always believed that scrapes were used by mature bucks to locate does. New research indicates that this might not be the case.

One key element to a hot scrape is the presence of an overhanging limb. For a buck to use a scrape, there must be a limb hanging over the scrape. For at least ten years I (DS) have hunted near a scrape on some land in Ohio. That scrape is opened early and is continually hit by bucks. In fact I nailed a good buck near there several years ago with my bow. That scrape is located along an old grown-up road bed, now a barely visible trail. Three years ago a guy came through (illegally) on a tractor and plowed over the overhanging branch. My buddy, Denny Crabtree, went in and wired up a new overhanging limb. That scrape never missed a beat, and the bucks are still using it. Deer researcher, John Ozoga was right when he stated that the “overhead limb is the most important part of the scrape.”

Remember, about half of the bucks that come to scrapes don’t do a thing. They are passive. Other bucks exhibit various behaviors at the scrapes (as do some does). Two common behaviors are marking the overhanging limb and rub-urination. Bucks that come to a hot scrape will often (1) smell the ground, then (2) stretch high to the overhanging branch and (a) lick it, and/or (b) thrash their antlers and the base of their horns in it (probably exposing the forehead gland andn the preorbital gland to the branch). Josh Braun, graduate student at Missouri State University, found that 57 percent of the interaction with the overhead limb involved rubbing the corner of the eye (preorbital gland), while 24 percent involved the forehead gland. Thus, it appears that the preorbital gland is very important in deer communication at the scrape.

Once that is done, he will probably paw the scrape and then bring the knee joints (the hocks) of his back legs together and urinate over them. In so doing he is urinating over the tarsal gland that is located on the inside of the knee joint. Often the buck will then lick the tarsal gland. This urinating behavior is called rub-urination and it is done by both sexes and can be seen all year round. But it is most prominently done by bucks at scrapes just prior to the peak of the rut.
Josh Braun found that the full marking sequence of marking the overhead limb, pawing the scrape, and rub-urinating in the scrape is done by bucks in less than 4 percent of their visits.

The why of rub-urination is all about odor. There are sebaceous glands under the tarsal hair producing lipids that cover the tarsal hair. These hairs then retain some of the components of urine and deer can then expose all these odors in response to encounters with other deer. It all sounds rather complicated, chemically, and it is. The key though is that rub-urination in bucks is tied to his testosterone levels and the does estrogen levels. In other words, it’s all about breeding. You can observe deer rub-urinating most anywhere, but it usually occurs at a scrape. Charles Alsheimer, Christian friend, and the best deer photographer in the country, has observed that mature bucks do not seem to rub-urinate at scrapes in October, but rather splay their legs as they urinate. Then come November, when the reproductive action really starts, the bucks will urinate using the rub-urination posture. Since the odors created by the combination of urine and sebaceous glands under the tarsal gland are very strong, his observations make sense. You would expect them to create these odors by rub-urinating more right before the peak of the rut.

Dr. Karl Miller also made an interesting observation in his breeding pens at the University of Georgia. He observed that subordinate bucks did not rub-urinate as frequently as dominant bucks did. When he removed the dominant buck, the younger bucks rub-urinated more frequently, but did not increase other activities at scrapes. When he put the big guy back, the little bucks stopped rub-urinating.

Dr. Grant Woods kept details on 63 deer observed in scrapes; 36 does, 18 bucks, 9 fawns (Table 1). Ten of 18 bucks smelled the overhanging branch, and four licked it. Interestingly 24 of 36 does seen in scrapes smelled the overhanging branch and 16 of them licked it, but only the bucks rubbed their preorbital or forehead gland on the overhanging branch. Most bucks and more than half the does smelled the ground. The fact that only five bucks actually pawed the ground when visiting the scrape may have a lot to do with the age of the visiting bucks. Subordinate bucks probably paw less than dominant older bucks.

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Table 1. Behavior of 18 bucks, 36 does, and 9 fawns seen in scrapes.

Behavior Seen Bucks Does Fawns
Smell the limb 10 24 6
Lick the limb 4 16 3
Rub eye on limb 2 0 0
Rub forehead on limb 1 0 0
Smell scrape on ground 13 22 6
Paw the scrape 5 2 2
Urinate in the scrape 6 1 1
Auto-erotic behavior 2 0 0
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Woods also found that lots of does visited the scrapes. Because so many does smelled or licked the overhanging limb, he concluded that “does are actually depositing or detecting pheromone(s) on overhanging limbs.” Note, they smell and lick the limb, but do not rub it with the preorbital or forehead gland.

I (BZ) also looked at behavior at scrapes. I took 96 deer photos on remote cameras placed at two scrapes (5 miles apart) from December to February in Texas. Seventy-seven of those photos showed bucks and 25 of those bucks actively interacted with the scrape (they stood over the scrape and pawed, rub-urinated, and/or rubbed their preorbital glands on an overhanging branch.) Fifty-two of the bucks in the photos were passive, showing no interest in the scrape.

The average age of the bucks (based on the appearance of 28 identifiable bucks in the photographs) was 5 years. Yes, a lot of mature bucks came to the scrapes. Of the bucks judged to be at least 4˝ years, 16 of their visits (44 percent) were considered passive. Of the bucks judged to be 3˝ years or younger, six of their visits (86 percent) were considered passive. OK, the sample size is small, but it appears that older bucks get more involved with the scrape than younger bucks. We should note that in this study area, there are a lot of older-age class bucks. However, as we shall see in a bit, in some other parts of the country, a lot of younger bucks come to scrapes.

Josh Braun monitored scrapes in Missouri with cameras and classified interactions as (a) no interaction, (b) interaction with marking, and (c) interaction without marking. He found that fawns were more likely to interact more, followed by bucks, then does. Does interacted about half as much as bucks. He also found that the younger the bucks the less likely they would interact with the scrape. For example, 40 percent of all yearling bucks marked the over hanging limb, while 50 percent of all 2˝ year-old bucks, 52 percent of 3˝ year olds, and 63 percent of all 4˝ year-old bucks and older marked. Since we indicated above that rubbing the preorbital gland is done a lot at scrapes, then it’s obvious that the preorbital scent is very important for older bucks. Why? Don’t know, but it is.

Alexy, in a Georgia study we will discuss in detail later in this chapter, monitored six scrapes with video cameras 24 hours a day for two breeding seasons. Thus, she was able to determine behavior at the scrapes. She observed that when looking at the times when bucks interacted at the scrape (and ignoring the times when they were passive) they almost always marked or licked the overhead branch. Again, from the above research, it becomes apparent that they are licking odor from the preorbital gland. In less than half of those active visits did they paw or urinate in the scrape. And when this pawing or urinating did occur it was more likely to be seen in late October and early November. She also saw many does marking the overhanging limb. All of these observations led her to conclude that the overhead branches are especially important for chemical signals. The fact that does also marked the overhanging branch led her to suggest that does receive information about bucks at the scrape and by interacting with the limb they give scent information as well.

Full scrape sequences involve licking the overhanging limb, pawing and urinating in the scrape. These sequences were only seen 22 times in the two years of her daily observations. Twice as many of these were done by older bucks than yearlings.

Are there different types of scrapes?
Years ago two bowhunters, as good as any deer hunters that ever carried bows, wrote classic books on hunting big bucks. Gene Wensel, from Montana at that time, wrote “Bowhunting Rutting Whitetails”. Roger Rothhaar, from Ohio at that time, wrote “In Pursuit of Trophy Whitetails”. (Interestingly both now live and bowhunt in Iowa, which tells you something about big bucks in Iowa). These books contained a ton of observational information on scrapes and I still go back and reread them every two years or so, because their observations are excellent relative to learning about scrapes.

They talked about several kinds of scrapes, especially “primary” and “secondary” scrapes. These books were written by bowhunters almost thirty years ago. They weren’t scientists, yet today we still talk about primary and secondary scrapes. Secondary scrapes can yield some good bucks because they are located along well used deer trails, and often lead into a good funnel. In other words, such scrapes are good indicators that a mature buck is in that area, and may be using the trail where the scrape was made. In fact, one can sometimes find a scrape line, with a series of scrapes along a trail that runs between bedding and feeding areas.

However, the scrapes that really mean something are the primary scrapes. Primary scrapes are like traditional rubs. They are made in the same spot year after year. Rothhaar noted that such scrapes were sometimes like the hub of a wheel. Instead of being made along a trail as most scrapes are, the trails come to the scrape. Because of this some outdoor writers use the term “hub” to define this type of scrape. Some hunters and outdoor writers call primary scrapes, “hot” scrapes, simply because lots of does come to them and lots of bucks can be seen in the vicinity, the two weeks prior to breeding. The Wensel and the Rothhaar books, now out of print I might add, go on to explain the importance of finding and hunting near such primary scrapes

There is a third category of scrapes. As you walk along an old logging trail, or along the edge of a field, you can find scrapes under overhanging branches. You may also find them near fields where trails intersect. These look like hot spots, and it is tempting to hunt over such scrapes, but usually these scrapes are visited at night so hunting there is fruitless. These scrapes only tell you that a buck walked by and pawed the ground. Usually such “boundary” scrapes are made by younger bucks and mean very little.

There are some writers and hunters who do not put much faith in categorizing scrapes. They simply note that scrapes may be active or inactive and go from there. We don’t agree and what follows is the latest science on scrapes. Read on and then draw your own conclusions on what scrapes mean and how you might use them to your advantage.

When during the fall do bucks scrape?
You won’t find many scrapes in September, but when you do they probably were made by a mature buck. Check out the primary scrapes in your area, and watch for early activity. That will give you a clue as to whether that big buck you hunted last year made it through the winter, spring, and summer. Yearling bucks tend to open scrapes in mid to late October, but the big guys may hit them earlier ... not often, but watch for early activity.

Research shows that the peak scraping time for the northern half of the country is the last week of October and the first week of November. For example, John Ozoga recorded the frequency of scraping in a 600-acre deer enclosure in northern Michigan. In the spring he located and tagged 26 scrapes scattered throughout his enclosure. They all had been pawed the previous fall. Starting October 7, he checked these scrapes every-other week until December 17. If the scrape was pawed, he put leaves on it except for a 10-inch circular area in the middle. All new scrapes found during his walks were also covered with leaves. Ozoga found that scraping jumped sharply the last week of October and peaked the first week of November. Eighty percent of all scraping occurred before the first female was bred in his enclosure (November 8).

In a second study, Ozoga walked a selected route within the enclosure. Twenty scrapes used the previous fall were marked and monitored from October 8 to November 12. Each week the ones that were pawed were recovered with leaves. Fifty-one new scrapes found while walking the route were also monitored. As you can see the peak scraping period in this enclosure was the first week of November, but the last week of October was also a busy one (Table 1).
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Table 1. The number of old scrapes reopened each week and the number of new scrapes opened each week in an enclosure in northern Michigan.
Old Scrapes New Scrapes
Week Number Number Pawed Number Number Pawed
October 8-15 20 2 7 7
October 16-22 20 6 20 15
October 23-29 20 8 30 12
Oct 30-Nov 5 20 10 48 23
Nov 6-12 20 9 51 7
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The most enlightening study ever done on scrapes was conducted by Karen Alexy, a graduate student at the University of Georgia. She used video cameras with infrared night lighting, placed at six scrapes in two northeastern Georgia counties. The areas studied had been under a quality deer management program (protect small bucks, shoot lots of does) for many years and the area had around 40 deer per square mile. Scrapes selected were ones that had been used in previous years. Four of the scrapes were along the edges of fields and two were in forests.

The results of this two-year study changed the thinking of many about scrapes. For example, she found that yearling buck visits to scrapes were highest from October 8-October 14. Wait a minute, yearling buck visits? Previously we believed that yearlings just didn’t fool with hot scrapes. They may make some inconsequential scrapes, but they don’t visit scrapes that are in the same spot year after year. Those are just for the big boys. Wrong.

Alexy learned that for bucks 2 1/2-years-old and older, the peak week was October 15-21, with October 8-14 in second and the first week of November third in number of buck visits per day at scrapes. (Note, the rut in this area is two-three weeks after mid-October). She also found rather heavy visitation rates the first two weeks of December. Most December visits were passive with little interaction at the scrape, but they did come to the scrapes.

The highest scrape visitation rates for does occurred in mid-October.

Where do bucks scrape?
The first scientific publication on where bucks scrape was in 1977. Those authors found scrapes where there was little understory vegetation, along game trails, old roads, or small openings. Most research since that time agrees that scrapes are usually placed in conspicuous locations, with little understory and on level ground. Since scrapes serve in deer communication, it makes sense that they need to be easily found by other deer. John Ozoga goes one step further and notes that scrapes are found where there is lots of deer activity.

What time of day do deer visit scrapes?
One of the earliest studies that looked at the time bucks came to scrapes was done by Grant Woods on a wildlife management area in Missouri. He found that most visits were at night. However, of the daytime visits to scrapes, the top period was from 8:45 AM to 10:15 AM, and the next most active was 3:45-5:15 PM. A third weaker period was from 11:45 AM-1:15 PM. Woods felt that in the morning bucks were more likely to scent check the scrape from downwind, rather than actually come to the scrape. During the late afternoon peak, bucks often came to the scrape rather than stop downwind. They also noted more behavior, such as rub-urination, pawing, etc. in the late afternoon visits. We know of no other studies that recorded behavior at scrapes during different times of the day. We can only speculate why there was more activity in the late afternoon. Does continuously hazed by bucks during the night become reticent to leave protective cover during he warmer daylight temperatures, affording deer a respite from intense pursuit. In other words, when the does bed down, bucks do the same (possibly a method of conserving energy). Hence, daytime visits to scrapes are diminished.

The Alexy study previously mentioned also found that most buck visits were at night, in fact she found that 85 percent of buck visits and 75 percent of doe visits to scrapes were at night. Dr. James Kroll, in a mock scrape study in Texas, found that half of bucks 1˝ and 2˝-years-old and one-fourth of older bucks were photographed at the mock scrapes in the daylight. It appears that the older the buck, the less likely they’ll visit scrapes during daylight. But wait.

I (RZ) took 48 deer photos with a remote camera at one scrape from Dec. 9, 1998, to Jan. 17, 1999, and found that 25 bucks visited that one scrape. Fourteen of those bucks were judged to be 4˝-years-old or older and half of their visits were during the day. I also photographed deer at two scrapes about five miles apart from Dec. 6, 1999, to Feb. 12, 2000 and got 96 deer photos of which 77 showed bucks. Forty-five (58 percent) of those visits were at night. One very old buck was photographed at one scrape five times; four times at night and once during daylight.

Who comes to the scrapes?
For years we believed that a scrape generally represented the breeding season activity of one, probably older and bigger, buck. At the very least, we believed that hot scrapes, the good ones, were only pawed and visited by mature bucks. The advent of the remote camera has shown that these “facts” aren’t reality.

Karen Alexy’s camera study was the study that changed our thinking on this. She utilized motion-activated video cameras and red-lensed floodlights, to record deer visits to scrapes over 24-hour periods. Results showed that not only do mature bucks visit these hot scrapes, but yearlings do as well. In fact, yearlings did 42 percent of the scraping. Bucks 2˝+ years marked at scrapes during 51 percent of visits. She also noted that females made more visits to scrapes than males, but the males interacted with scrapes more often.

Apparently dominant bucks do not control hot scrapes. Just as was seen in Texas, Alexy saw as many as 13 different bucks and as few as three using one scrape in one year. We also formerly believed that once a buck came to a scrape, he would return and remark the scrape. That might be true for some bucks, but Alexy found that only half of the bucks revisited a scrape. She did have several bucks that revisited the same scrape six or seven times. But for the most part, only a few bucks visited more than one of her monitored scrapes, even though there were two that were only 300 yards apart. In fact she recorded only one individual that came to both scrapes.

Other studies have had similar results. Dr. Kroll’s mock scrape study found no individual bucks revisiting a scrape during his research (which ran the last two weeks of October).

As mentioned above in the “What time of day do deer visit scrapes” section, I (RZ) had 48 deer photos taken at one scrape from Dec. 9 1998 to Jan 17 1999. The photos recorded 41 different deer at this single scrape of which 25 were bucks and ten of those were yearlings, one was middle-aged and 14 were mature, meaning they were at least 4 1/2-years-old. Data from two other scrapes located five miles apart showed that 10 of 28 identifiable bucks visited the scrapes more than once. Two bucks visited the same scrape more than twice. One buck visited the same scrape three times, and another visited the same scrape five times. So even though there were more mature bucks on this site than on the Georgia sites mentioned above, only 10 bucks visited scrapes more than twice. As previously mentioned, maybe bucks can wind check the scrapes without actually having to come to them.

I (RZ) found a much higher number of older bucks coming to scrapes on my Texas study areas than Alexy did on her Georgia study areas. The fact is that there are many mature bucks on our Texas study area, probably many more than found on the Georgia sites. The older age class structure may explain why some of my bucks visited scrapes several times, while this did not occur on the Georgia sites. One conclusion can be gotten from both the Georgia and the Texas study. A scrape does not “belong” to any one buck, but rather is communal property that is visited by several individuals for a variety of reasons. It also seems obvious that seeing a buck at a particular scrape is no guarantee that it will return. And if it does, there’s a good chance —around 50% or more —that the visit will be at night. However, one other important conclusion from these studies ... hot scrapes attract lots of different bucks and does.

Grant Wood, in his master’s thesis, stated “At all of the monitored scrapes, younger and or smaller bucks (assumed to be subordinate) appeared to be as active in marking behavior as were the dominant bucks. On three occasions, bucks of different size or age classes were observed together in a scrape performing one or more of the scrape-associated behaviors.“

Alexy had one other very interesting finding in her camera study of scrapes. Some bucks 3 ˝ years and older did not visit the scrapes at all. She reached this conclusion because almost all of the 3 ˝+ year-old-bucks harvested on her study areas were not videoed at the scrapes. In fact several older bucks were harvested quite close to monitored scrapes leading her to believe that these older bucks wind checked the scrapes without visiting them.

Then again maybe a few big bucks didn’t visit scrapes at any time. My (DS) friend, Gene Wensel, told me several years ago that he was hunting a buck that for whatever reason, did not participate in the rut. In other words, Gene didn’t find any rubs or scrapes made by this buck, never saw him make rubs or scrapes, and never saw him chasing does. Other whitetail specialists have also indicated a similar belief — there are older whitetail bucks that don’t seem to be interested in does. And in chapter 10 we discussed what bucks do the mating, and studies have shown that some older bucks just don’t mate does. Hmmm.

Do Mock Scrapes Work?
Yep, they do. In the late 80's and early 90's there was a lot written about mock scrapes, but in recent years we don’t hear as much, probably because guys tried them and they didn’t work. Well, we are here to tell you that mock scrapes may not be a magic elixir, but they can attract bucks. In those early mock scrape days, what was written came from hunters. There was no science on mock scrapes. There still isn’t much science out there, but what has been done shows that mock scrapes do attract deer.

Bob McGuire, a bowhunter from Tennessee, started the whole mock scrape idea. Bob went to great lengths to keep his human odor away from the scrapes he made. Bob Fratzke was another bowhunter, from Minnesota, who wrote a lot about making scrapes. Both hunters talked about the licking overhanging branch above their mock scrapes. Both noted the advantages of hunting near mock scrapes as opposed to hunting near the real ones.

When you build a mock scrape you can take advantage of wind, better cover, and you can create a licking overhead branch that works. The other advantage is that you can start them early. Some hunters, including Bob Fratzke, start them in late spring. Bob simply makes an overhanging branch, then scrapes the area under it. As he notes, when the first buck comes to that branch and scrape, that scrape goes from being a mock scrape to a real one. He believes that if the mock scrape isn’t used, you built it in the wrong place. He also believes that you should make 3-4 mock scrapes close together as this attracts bucks better than just one scrape.

To make the overhanging limb, you can simply bend and wire a small sapling so that the top of it is 4-5 feet over the scrape. Or you can actually wire or nail a small sapling to a nearby tree so that the tip is over the scrape. Wear rubber gloves and never touch the end of the sapling where the deer will lick and smell. Deer researcher John Ozoga erected 40 artificial overhanging limbs in his large research pen and 24 of them became scrapes within 5 weeks. He then did another test where he created overhanging limbs, opened up the leaves, and also put doe in heat urine in some. Neither removing leaves or adding deer urine increased the rate at which bucks scraped beneath his artificial limbs.

There have been few scientific studies of mock scrapes. Dr. James Kroll and Ben Koerth conducted the most interesting mock study ever done. From October 11 to December 5, they put infrared-triggered cameras on mock scrapes with various scents placed in them. In 1998 they created four replications of mock scrapes; one set had nothing in them, one set had rutting buck urine, one set had doe-in-heat urine, and one set human urine. The results were interesting especially for those of you who believe that human urine scares deer.

Bucks visited scrapes with buck urine and human urine the most. Estrus doe urine and scrapes with no scent came in a close second. The researchers could not distinguish a statistical difference in visits to these scrapes, and they saw no difference in the age of bucks visiting these scrapes.

The next fall they made mock scrapes with buck urine, hot doe urine, no scent at all, and some with “new car scent” spray. Again the results were a bit unexpected. Bucks came to all four treatments. The fact that bucks came to new car scent spray, and to mock scrapes with no scent was attributed to curiosity. Dr. Kroll found that almost as many does and fawns came to the scrapes as bucks. Does came more to the doe estrus urine than the other treatments, while bucks seemed to favor the estrus urine and the buck urine. It appears then that a scrape can bring bucks to it based on visual signals (they came to a scrape with nothing in it), and scent signals. In addition, they obviously come out of curiosity (eg. new car scent spray).

Several other researchers have studied the use of mock scrapes in deer pens of various sizes. Again, they found that bucks often came to the scrapes. Some had no scent placed in them, others used hot doe urine. These studies tell us that we should at the very least, scrape out a mock scrape every time we get in a tree stand. Put it on a location where you will not have bucks wind you when they come in, and where you want to shoot when they see and/or smell the scrape.

Before ending this chapter, let me add something on preorbital glands and overhanging limbs. All the above research shows that the preorbital gland scent is important at scrapes. Some friends of mine from Pennsylvania have been using preorbital gland lure at primary scrapes and mock scrapes for the past few years. (Google “preorbital gland lure” to find where to buy this. It is expensive because it is collected from the preorbital gland of harvested bucks). They start applying the lure to overhanging limbs in August, and do it weekly through October. Their results have been nothing short of fantastic and I am now a believer. They’ve harvested some super bucks in Pennsylvania on or near such scrapes. My Ohio lease friends put it on two primary scrapes that are hot every year. Using preorbital gland lure made those scrapes hotter than ever, and we saw and photographed more bucks there this year than ever before.

There you have the latest scientific data on scrapes. Maybe that is more dirt on scrapes than you bargained for, but our advice is to store this information away and use it when you have a hunting situation where you need some answers.
........"This is a chapter of Dr. Samuel's book, Whitetail Advantage, published here with permission of published with permission of Krause Publications, 700 East State Steet, Iowa WI 54990. Copies available at most national bookstore chains such as Barnes and Noble, or at www.knowhunting.com.

Dr. David Samuel

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